Author: Kaswanto (Dept. of Landscape Architecture, Bogor Agric. Univ. (IPB)
(This article copyrighted by ICRAF)
Polemics caused by natural resources degradation in watershed area is still being a big concern recently. Therefore an urgent and huge step have to develop and overcome for the needs of stakeholders and public communites. One of the approach which has been done with quick problem solve related to hidrological condition in watershed area is Rapid Hydrological Appraisal (RHA). A ’rapid appraisal’ (the six-months period) in conducting this approach could help to improve the decision making process inside goverment structure to cooperate with short-periode of their policy (five years period). The RHA approach is very helpfull to construct early opinion about condition of water quality and quantity in watershed area. Degradation of water quality caused by pesticide over-utilization in upperstream, and also the increasing of water quantity caused by land use changing in watershed area were believed could to be approached by RHA analysis.
Basically, the RHA approach is tried to gather three types of knowledge function. In active discussion between upland (or upperstream) and lowland (or downstream) communities, public policy makers and scientists. Those three types knowledge were called as local ecological knowledge (LEK), policy ecological knowledge (PEK) and modellers ecological knowledge (MEK). The negotiation would be accomplished between those multiple stakeholders as part of ’Rewarding Upland Poor for the Environmental Services the provide’ (RUPES) mechanism, to find out how the rewards can be channelled effectively and to enhance or at least to maintain the function each natural resources sustainly. They could sit together to solve the problems with the best decision in the past, present, or in the near future. And then, let hopes that the four aspects of RUPES mechanism, i.e. value, threat, opportunity and trust could be enable to increasing an appraisal of opportunities in negotiating for sustainable watershed function in eco-centric aspect. Again, let believe that the rapid result from RHA could help goverment (PEK) as a decision maker to conduct any regulation and action needed over a period of five years of their reign.
The aims for conducting the RHA approach are:
- To study the RHA approach as an alternative method for analysis the main factor causes degradation of hidrological condition in Upper-Middle Ciliwung Watershed area.
- To help construct an early opinion in the watershed function in understanding for three types of knowledge, i.e. LEK, PEK and MEK.
- To analyze quality and quantity of hydrological aspect as well that could be able to provide some instruments for downstream communities to appreciate upperstream communities.
The research was conducted in Ciliwung Watershed that located in Bogor and Puncak Region and limited to upper and middle part which is covered by eleven sub-districts in upper stream and middle stream. There are six sub-districts were in Bogor District (Kabupaten Bogor), i.e. Cisarua, Megamendung, Ciawi, Sukaraja, Bojonggede and Cibinong. The rest of five sub-districts were in Bogor City (Kota Bogor), i.e. Bogor Selatan, Bogor Tengah, Bogor Timur, Bogor Utara and Tanah Sareal.
The Ciliwung Watershed delineation was based on contour level from digital elevation model (DEM) that was formed from topographical map of BAKOSURTANAL. This DEM have been used widely for many research activities in watershed scales. Location selection according to several considerations as follow:
- Republic of Indonesia Presidential Decree Number 114 year 1999 about Spatial Region Planning for Bogor – Puncak – Cianjur Region.
- Republic of Indonesia Government Regulation Number 47 Year 1997 about National Spatial Planning, Bogor – Puncak – Cianjur Region.
- Research Cooperation between Directorate General of Higher Education (DGHE) and Department of Landscape Architecture IPB under the Project of Graduate School Grant phase IV in 2006-2008 periods.
- Research cooperation between the University of Tokyo and IPB under the Research Unit for Biological Resources Development (RUBRD) in 1998 – 2007 periods.
Rapid Hydrological Appraisal (RHA)
The current RHA approach was conducted from a comprehensive ten main phases, framework analysis and watershed management developed by ICRAF-SEA as negotiation support system (NSS) (van Noorwidjk et. al. 2004). Detailed driven factor of RHA domains, i.e. landscape (L), socioeconomic relations – household level (S), watershed function (W), improved land use or agroforestry technology (A) and NSS itself were explained in RHA manual by ICRAF-SEA.
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