Penyelesaian Network Problem dalam GIS

25 03 2010

Salah satu penyelesaian terhadap network problem dalam GIS dapat ditempuh dengan menggunakn sedikit konsep modeling yang dapat diimplementasikan dengan teknik loose coupling atau tight coupling. Teknik pertama, dengan loose coupling maka seluruh data yang diperlukan oleh model tersebut diekspor dari GIS sebagai kumpulan file data terpisah yang kemudian dijadikan sebagai input dari model. Output dari model ini kemudian dikembalikan lagi dalam bentuk file data yg ditampilkan di dalam aplikasi GIS. Jadi modelingnya sendiri dapat berjalan di luar aplikasi GIS. Di sini GIS hanya digunakan untuk preprocessing data dan hanya menampilkan data output. Dengan demikian, kemampuan programming jelas sangat diperlukan karena model dibuat oleh kita sendiri.

Teknik kedua dengan tight coupling, artinya pertukaran data antara GIS dan model berlangsung di belakang layar (behind the scene), tersembunyi dari user. Kegiatan ini seolah-olah tampak menyatu dengan aplikasi GIS, padahal sebenarnya tidak demikian adanya. Sebagai contoh adalah software ArcGIS Network Analyst, SuperGeo, TransCAD. Beberapa algoritma yang disediakan untuk mengatasi problem network, seperti shortest path problem, p-median problem, p-center problem, dan sebagainya sudah banyak tersedia dalam interface software tersebut. Tugas kita hanya memasukkan input parameternya saja. Kita sangat dimanjakan dengan perangkat yang seperti ini.

Teknik lainnya bisa saja kita membuat sendiri model SDSS dengan algoritma yg kita rancang sendiri, kemudian disimpan dalam bentuk aplikasi yang bisa diembed ke dalam aplikasi GIS yang sudah ada. Misalnya kita membangun model dalam bentuk format file *.dll yang dapat di-embed sebagai toolbar ke dalam aplikasi ArcGIS. Teknik ini sangat jarang dilakukan oleh para pelaku GIS (GIS-ers), karena seringnya error yang ditimbulkan dalam proses embedding file ini. Layaknya membuat homepage dengan bahasa CSS, sederhana namun rumit.

Sebagai contoh spatial decision problem (diambil dari berbagai sumber):

  1. Menentukan rute terbaik dari satu lokasi ke satu atau lebih lokasi yang lain.
  2. Mencari lokasi terbaik untuk membangun fasilitas umum seperti sekolah, pemadam kebakaran, rumah sakit, supermarket, perkebunan, perumahan dan sebagainya.
  3. Mencari lahan yang paling efisien untuk kegiatan komersil. Dalam menetapkan suatu problem spasial, kita harus menetapkan tujuan (objective function), asumsi dan batasan-batasan (constraints). Misalnya, pada contoh kasus 1: -Tujuan: meminimalkan waktu tempuh; -Asumsi: waktu tempuh setiap segmen jalan hanya dihitung dari panjang jalan dan batas maksimum kecepatan pada ruas jalan tersebut, dan kecepatan ini statik sepanjang masa; -Constraint: ruas jalan yg boleh dilalui hanyalah ruas jalan yg memiliki kecepatan di atas 40 km/jam. Problem di atas merupakan problem matematis berbasis network yg dapat diselesaikan dengan algoritma heuristics. Djikstra merupakan algoritma yg sering dipakai utk menyelesaikan shortest path problem. Utk problem yg lebih rumit, bisa menggunakan metaheuristic spt Genetic Algorithm, Tabu Search, Simulated Annealing, dsb.

Kasus 2 dan 3 umumnya melibatkan banyak stakeholder sehingga tujuannya lebih dari satu (multi-objective) . Misalnya, sebagian pihak lebih peduli terhadap faktor lingkungan, pihak lain lebih peduli terhadap faktor biaya atau keuntungan, pihak lainnya lebih peduli terhadap dampak sosial dari pembangunan suatu fasilitas umum. Situasi dimana terdapat keputusan yang kontroversial seperti ini memunculkan konsep Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM). Sesuai namanya, dalam MCDM kita menetapkan sejumlah kriteria untuk membangun lokasi fasilitas umum, misalnya sekolah. Kriterianya, sekolah tersebut harus dekat dengan permukiman, memiliki aksesibilitas baik, jauh dari pusat industri, terletak di tanah yg landai, dan sebagainya. Problem MCDM bisa diselesaikan dengan teknik Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), perankingan ataupun peratingan. Dalam tools GIS, analisis MCDM ini dapat diimplementasikan dengan menggunakan pe-layer-an raster dimana masing-masing layer mewakili satu kriteria. Setiap pixel dalam raster mewakili site yang akan dievaluasi, dan nilai-nilai pixel tesebut mencerminkan seberapa baikkah suatu site memenuhi kriteria yang sudah kita tetapkan. Dengan memberi faktor pembobotan (weighting factor) untuk setiap kriteria, maka kita dapat melakukan operasi tumpang tindih (overlay) terhadap layer dari raster tersebut untuk mencari tapak  yg paling tinggi nilai kesesuaian lahannya.

Semoga pemikiran ini berguna…



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159 responses to “Penyelesaian Network Problem dalam GIS”

13 01 2011
Tweets that mention Penyelesaian Network Problem dalam GIS « Regan Leonardus's Blog -- Topsy.com (02:49:58) :

[…] This post was mentioned on Twitter by Eko Juniarto, Ivo Setyadi. Ivo Setyadi said: RT @sigantengkalem: nemu plagiator: http://reganleonardus.wordpress.com/2010/03/25/penyelesaian-network-problem-dalam-gis/ nyontek http: … […]

13 01 2011
reganleonardus (08:01:50) :

Thanx sudah berkunjung.
Saya menyebutkan “diambil dari berbagai sumber”, karena source aslinya hilang. Jika ada informasi source/linknya mohon kabari.

Thanx a lot atas perhatiannya.

13 01 2011
ryosaeba (13:54:58) :

FYI, ada automattic/dmca. coba lihat-lihat ke sana deh. sudah makan korban blog plagiator di-suspend oleh wordpress.com. soal source, anda bisa klik sendiri dari info Topsy.com di atas.

13 01 2011
reganleonardus (14:16:30) :

Thank you infonya. Tentang dmca yang ini ya linknya?
http://automattic.com/dmca/

Saya juga baru saja akses ke techpp.com mengenai plagiat. Ada cara menangani para plagiat dengan jalan yang elegan dan baik.
http://techpp.com/2009/07/06/how-to-fight-plagisarism-on-wordpresscom/

Saya sudah coba ke twitter tersebut di atas…no additional information about it.

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