Menghitung Jutaan Tahun Cahaya

27 02 2015

Menghitung Jutaan Tahun Cahaya ternyata memiliki arti tersendiri. Sehabis mengubek-ubek cara menghitung jutaan tahun cahaya, akhirnya menemukan satu artikel yang menarik untuk dibaca. Agak berat namun sarat makna.

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Salam KAS,

 

Meraih Batas Pandang Alam Semesta
Winardi Sutantyo

PADA Maret 2004 suatu tim astronom di European Southern Observatory yang dipimpin Roser Pelló dan Daniel Schaerer mengumumkan penemuan galaksi yang terjauh, yaitu Abell 1835 IR1916. Jarak galaksi tersebut 13,23 miliar tahun cahaya (satu tahun cahaya adalah jarak yang ditempuh cahaya dalam satu tahun; satu detik cahaya adalah 300.000 kilometer). Pertanyaan yang muncul, bagaimana astronom dapat mengetahui jarak galaksi tersebut” Seberapa jauh kita dapat melihat alam semesta ini” Dan apa yang dapat kita lihat pada jarak terjauh itu ?

GALAKSI terjauh, Abell 1835 IR1916 (dalam lingkaran), terletak pada jarak 13,23 miliar tahun cahaya (foto dari European Southern Observatory atau ESO). Metode penentuan jarak bintang yang paling sederhana adalah metode paralaks trigonometri. Akibat perputaran Bumi mengitari Matahari, maka bintang-bintang yang dekat tampak bergeser letaknya terhadap latar belakang bintang-bintang yang jauh. Dengan mengukur sudut pergeseran itu (disebut sudut paralaks), dan karena kita tahu jarak Bumi ke Matahari, maka jarak bintang dapat ditentukan.

Sudut paralaks ini sangat kecil hingga cara ini hanya bisa digunakan untuk bintang-bintang yang jaraknya relatif dekat, yaitu hanya sampai beberapa ratus tahun cahaya (bandingkan dengan diameter galaksi kita yang 100.000 tahun cahaya, dan jarak galaksi Andromeda yang dua juta tahun cahaya). Ada metode lain yang dapat meraih jarak lebih jauh, yaitu metode fotometri.

Bayangkan pada suatu malam yang gelap Anda melihat sebuah lampu di kejauhan. Anda diminta menentukan jarak lampu itu. Ini dapat Anda lakukan asalkan Anda tahu berapa watt daya lampu itu. Dalam istilah astronomi daya sumber cahaya disebut luminositas, yaitu energi yang dipancarkan sumber setiap detik. Jarak ditentukan dengan menggunakan prinsip inverse-square law, artinya terang sumber cahaya yang kita lihat sebanding terbalik dengan jarak kuadrat. Suatu lampu yang jaraknya kita jauhkan dua kali, cahayanya akan tampak lebih redup empat kali.

Ada benda-benda langit yang luminositasnya dapat diketahui. Ini disebut sebagai lilin penentu jarak (standard candle). Salah satu lilin penentu jarak adalah bintang-bintang variabel Cepheid yang berubah cahayanya dengan irama tetap (periodik). Perubahan cahaya itu disebabkan karena bintang itu berdenyut. Makin panjang periode (selang waktu antara) denyutan, makin terang bintang itu.

Sifat tersebut ditemukan oleh astronom wanita Henrietta Leavitt pada tahun 1912. Jadi, luminositas bintang dapat ditentukan dengan cara mengukur periode denyutannya. Variabel Cepheid merupakan bintang yang sangat terang, hingga beberapa puluh ribu kali matahari, karena itu dapat digunakan untuk menentukan jarak galaksi lain.

Ada lilin penentu jarak yang jauh lebih terang lagi, yaitu Supernova Type Ia. Ini bintang meledak, terangnya telah dikalibrasi sekitar 10 miliar kali matahari. Ini lilin penentu jarak yang sangat penting karena bisa digunakan untuk menentukan jarak galaksi-galaksi yang sangat jauh. Studi tentang Supernova Type Ia ini intensif dilakukan sekarang.

Alam semesta

Sebuah mobil ambulans bergerak sambil membunyikan sirene. Bila mobil itu sedang mendekati kita, maka suara lengking sirene itu bernada tinggi. Tetapi bila mobil melewati kita dan bergerak menjauh, nada lengking menjadi rendah. Ini disebut efek Doppler. Bunyi adalah peristiwa gelombang. Pada saat sumber bunyi mendekat, waktu getarnya (frekuensinya) bertambah, maka nadanya terdengar tinggi. Tetapi bila sumber bunyi menjauh, waktu getarnya merendah.

Cahaya merupakan gelombang elektromagnet. Cahaya yang waktu getarnya cepat berwarna biru, yang waktu getarnya lambat berwarna merah. Efek Doppler juga berlaku untuk cahaya. Sebuah sumber cahaya akan tampak lebih biru bila benda tadi bergerak mendekat dan lebih merah bila menjauh.

Vesto Slipher di Observatorium Lowell, Amerika, pada tahun 1920 menunjukkan bahwa garis spektrum galaksi-galaksi yang jauh bergeser ke arah merah. Ini disebut pergeseran merah atau red shift. Artinya, galaksi-galaksi itu semuanya bergerak menjauhi kita. Dengan mengukur besar pergeseran merah itu kecepatan menjauh galaksi-galaksi itu dapat diukur.

Pada tahun 1929 Edwin Hubble di Observatorium Mount Wilson, Amerika, mendapatkan adanya hubungan antara kecepatan menjauh itu dan jarak galaksi. Makin jauh suatu galaksi, makin besar kecepatannya. Hubble mendapatkan hubungan itu linier dan menuliskannya dalam rumusV = H D dengan V = kecepatan menjauh, D = jarak galaksi dan H disebut tetapan Hubble. Dengan rumus Hubble itu dapat diperoleh bahwa semua galaksi itu dulu menyatu di suatu titik. Kapan ? Waktunya adalah t = D / V atau t = 1 / H. Pada waktu itulah terjadi big bang atau ledakan besar yang membentuk alam semesta ini.

Harga t inilah yang kita sebut sebagai umur alam semesta. Dengan mengukur tetapan Hubble H, maka umur alam semesta dapat ditentukan, yaitu sekitar 13-15 miliar tahun. Taksiran terbaik adalah 13,7 miliar tahun. Ini juga cocok dengan umur bintang-bintang tua di globular cluster (gugus bintang bola) yang ditentukan dari teori evolusi bintang, yaitu 12-13 miliar tahun.

Penemuan Hubble ini menunjukkan bahwa alam semesta kita ini sekarang mengembang. Pengembangan alam semesta dan Hukum Hubble dapat dijelaskan oleh model alam semesta Friedmann. Sebenarnya sifat alam semesta yang tidak statis ini sudah diperoleh Einstein ketika mengembangkan Teori Relativitas Umum-nya. Namun, Einstein dan banyak ahli fisika lainnya tidak memercayainya. Hanya Alexander Friedmann, seorang ahli fisika dan matematika Rusia, mengembangkan modelnya berdasarkan solusi non-static pada Teori Relativitas Umum Einstein. Ia memprediksi kemungkinan alam semesta yang mengembang pada tahun 1922, tujuh tahun sebelum Hubble menemukan hukumnya.

Dengan menggunakan hukum Hubble ini, galaksi yang dapat ditentukan pergeseran merah atau red shift-nya (dengan kata lain kecepatan menjauhnya), maka jaraknya dapat ditentukan. Galaksi Abell 1835 IR1916 pada awal tulisan ini, yang merupakan galaksi yang terjauh, ditentukan jaraknya dengan cara ini. Garis spektrum yang berasal dari hidrogren (disebut Lyman-alpha) di galaksi ini yang seharusnya berada di warna ultraviolet bergeser ke warna inframerah.

Jarak galaksi itu 13,23 miliar tahun cahaya. Bila alam semesta ini berumur 13,7 miliar tahun, berarti kita melihat galaksi itu hanya 470 juta tahun setelah big bang, sewaktu umur alam semesta baru 3,4 persen dari umurnya sekarang. Bila kita umpamakan alam semesta ini kakek berumur 80 tahun, yang kita lihat adalah balita berumur 2,5 tahun.

Bola terjauh

Seberapa jauh kita dapat melihat alam semesta” Pertama kita pahami dulu bagaimana posisi kita melihat masa lalu alam semesta. Imajinasikan kita berdiri di suatu titik dalam alam semesta. Kemudian kita bayangkan suatu bola dengan kita sebagai pusat. Katakan radius bola itu 1.000 tahun cahaya. Maka bila kita melihat benda yang berada di permukaan bola itu, berarti kita melihat benda itu pada keadaan 1.000 tahun yang lalu. Ini karena cahaya yang kita lihat (atau informasi yang kita terima) dari benda itu berangkat dari sana 1.000 tahun yang lalu.

Kita bisa membuat bola lain, kita tetap sebagai pusat, dan radius bola kita ambil jauh lebih besar, misalnya sejuta tahun cahaya. Kalau kita bisa melihat benda yang berada di permukaan bola itu, di mana pun arahnya, berarti kita melihat ke masa sejuta tahun yang lalu. Begitu seterusnya kita bisa membuat bola-bola histori alam semesta. Makin besar bola itu, makin jauh kita melihat ke masa silam.

Umur alam semesta ditaksir sekitar 13,7 miliar tahun. Maka benda terjauh yang bisa kita lihat adalah benda yang terletak di permukaan bola yang radiusnya dari kita 13,7 miliar tahun cahaya. Itulah bola terbesar yang bisa kita buat. Apa yang bisa kita lihat di situ ?

Kita tengok sebentar peristiwa sehari-hari. Pada siang hari yang berawan kita melihat langit berwarna putih. Kita tidak bisa melihat matahari yang berada di balik awan itu. Ini disebabkan karena partikel uap air di awan menyebarkan cahaya matahari. Ibaratnya, cahaya matahari “dipingpong” ke sana kemari oleh partikel uap air (disebut penyebaran Mie). Dengan begitu, kita kehilangan informasi tentang arah sumber cahaya itu, yaitu matahari. Tetapi bila ada pesawat terbang yang terbang di bawah awan, kita bisa melihatnya. Jadi, ruang di antara kita dan awan transparan, sedangkan awan tidak transparan.

Kembali ke alam semesta. Tak lama setelah big bang terjadi, alam semesta dihuni oleh partikel cahaya atau radiasi (photon), inti-inti atom ringan (yang terdiri dari proton dan neutron) dan elektron bebas. Elektron bebas bersifat menyebarkan cahaya (photon), sama seperti partikel uap air di dalam awan tadi. Jadi pada saat itu alam semesta tidak transparan, karena cahaya atau radiasi di situ “dipingpong” oleh elektron (disebut penyebaran Compton), mirip yang terjadi pada awan pada analogi di atas.

Akan tetapi, sekitar 400.000 tahun setelah big bang, proton dan elektron bergabung membentuk atom hidrogen netral. Jumlah elektron bebas berkurang. Karena partikel penyebarnya (elektron) berkurang, maka penyebaran cahaya atau radiasi juga berkurang. Jadi, alam semesta sekitar 400.000 tahun setelah big bang menjadi transparan.

Permukaan bola pada jarak 400.000 tahun setelah big bang disebut “permukaan penyebaran terakhir” atau surface of last scattering. Kalau kita melihat ke surface of last scattering (berarti ke masa 400.000 tahun setelah big bang), ibaratnya kita melihat ke awan pada analogi di atas. Yang di balik itu tidak dapat kita lihat karena alam semesta waktu itu tidak transparan. Alam semesta mulai dari surface of last scattering hingga kita transparan. Dari surface of last scattering itu kita melihat radiasi yang berasal dari big bang yang dikenal sebagai latar belakang gelombang mikrokosmik atau cosmic microwave background disingkat CMB.

Pengamatan CMB

Pada tahun 1948, ahli astrofisika kelahiran Rusia, George Gamow, mengemukakan bila kita melihat cukup jauh ke alam semesta, maka kita akan melihat radiasi latar belakang sisa dari big bang. Gamow menghitung bahwa setelah menempuh jarak yang sangat jauh, radiasi itu akan teramati dari Bumi sebagai radiasi gelombang mikro.

Pada tahun 1965, Arno Penzias dan Robert Wilson sedang mencoba antena telekomunikasi milik Bell Telephone Laboratory di Holmdel, New Jersey. Mereka dipusingkan oleh adanya desis latar belakang yang mengganggu. Mereka mengecek antena mereka, membersihkan dari tahi burung, tetapi desis itu tetap ada. Mereka belum menyadari desis yang mereka dengar itu berasal dari tepi jagat raya.

Penzias dan Wilson menelepon astronom radio Robert Dicke di Universitas Princeton untuk minta pendapat bagaimana mengatasi masalah itu. Dicke segera menyadari apa yang didapat kedua orang itu. Segera setelah itu dua makalah dipublikasikan di Astrophysical Journal. Satu oleh Penzias dan Wilson yang menguraikan penemuannya, satu oleh Dicke dan timnya yang memberikan interpretasi. Penzias dan Wilson memperoleh Hadiah Nobel untuk Fisika pada tahun 1978.

Penemuan CMB itu dikukuhkan oleh satelit Cosmic Background Explorer (Cobe) milik Badan Antariksa Amerika Serikat (NASA). Pengukuran oleh satelit Cobe itu menunjukkan temperatur CMB yang hanya 2,725 derajat Kelvin (nol derajat Celsius sama dengan 273 derajat Kelvin). Satelit Cobe memetakan radiasi itu di segala arah dan ternyata semuanya uniform sampai ketelitian satu dibanding 10.000. Kalau kita mempunyai mata yang peka pada CMB, maka langit seperti dilabur putih, sama di semua arah, mulus sempurna, tidak ada noda-nodanya. Ini sesuai dengan prinsip dasar kosmologi bahwa alam semesta ini isotropik dan homogen; seragam di semua arah. Yang kita lihat adalah surface of last scattering.

Sedemikian seragamnya CMB hingga hanya alat yang sangat sensitif dapat melihat adanya fluktuasi atau ketidakseragaman pada CMB. Untuk itu, NASA telah meluncurkan satelit antariksanya, Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), yang lebih cermat daripada Cobe untuk mempelajari fluktuasi itu. Dengan mempelajari fluktuasi itu, diharapkan kita dapat mengetahui asal mula galaksi-galaksi dan struktur skala besar alam semesta dan mengukur parameter-parameter penting dari big bang.

Referensi:

Kompas (30 April 2005)

http://www.fisikanet.lipi.go.id/utama.cgi?artikel&1115502702&9

http://blendedlearning.itb.ac.id/web5/index.php/forum/detail/9824



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