Keanekaragaman Hayati

5 07 2017
Keanekaragaman Hayati, mencakup habitat, produksi dan langka

Keanekaragaman Hayati, mencakup habitat, produksi dan langka

Keanekaragaman Hayati

Keragaman istilah biologi atau keanekaragaman hayati dapat memiliki banyak interpretasi. Hal ini paling sering digunakan untuk menggantikan istilah yang lebih jelas dan lama didirikan, keragaman spesies dan kekayaan spesies. Ahli biologi paling sering mendefinisikan keanekaragaman hayati sebagai “totalitas gen, spesies, dan ekosistem suatu daerah”.[12][13] Sebuah keuntungan dari definisi ini adalah bahwa tampaknya untuk menggambarkan keadaan paling dan menyajikan pandangan terpadu dari tiga tingkat tradisional di berbagai biologis yang telah diidentifikasi:

Pada tahun 2003 Profesor Anthony Campbell di Cardiff University, Inggris dan Pusat Darwin, Pembrokeshire, yang didefinisikan tingkat keempat: Keragaman Molekuler.[14]

Ini membangun bertingkat konsisten dengan Dasmann dan Lovejoy. Definisi eksplisit yang konsisten dengan penafsiran ini pertama kali diberikan dalam makalah oleh Bruce A. Wilcox ditugaskan oleh Persatuan Internasional untuk Konservasi Alam dan Sumber Daya Alam (IUCN) untuk Konferensi Dunia 1982 Nasional Taman.[15] Definisi Wilcox adalah “Keanekaragaman hayati adalah berbagai bentuk kehidupan … di semua tingkat sistem biologis (yaitu, molekul, organismic, populasi, spesies dan ekosistem) …”. Tahun 1992 PBB KTT Bumi didefinisikan “keanekaragaman hayati” sebagai “variabilitas antara organisme hidup dari semua sumber, termasuk, ‘antara lain’, darat, laut, dan ekosistem air lainnya, dan kompleks ekologi yang mereka adalah bagian: ini termasuk keragaman di dalam spesies, antara spesies dan ekosistem “.[16] Definisi ini digunakan dalam Konvensi PBB tentang Keanekaragaman Hayati.[16]

Satu definisi buku teks adalah “variasi kehidupan di semua tingkat organisasi biologis”.[17] Genetika s mendefinisikannya sebagai keragaman gen dan organisme s. Mereka mempelajari proses seperti mutasi s, transfer gen, dan dinamika genom yang menghasilkan evolusi.[15] Mengukur keragaman di satu tingkat dalam kelompok organisme mungkin tidak tepat sesuai dengan keragaman pada tingkat lainnya. Namun, tetrapod (vertebrata darat) taksonomi dan keragaman ekologi menunjukkan korelasi yang sangat dekat.[18]




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