Kawasan Rumah Pangan Lestari

31 07 2016
Kawasan Rumah Pangan Lestari

Kawasan Rumah Pangan Lestari di Desa Babakan, Kec. Darmaga, Bogor

Menurut http://www.litbang.pertanian.go.id/krpl/, Kawasan Rumah Pangan Lestari (KRPL) adalah kawasan dalam skala luas yang menerapkan Rumah Pangan Lestari (RPL), artinya penerapan RPL yang tidak hanya dalam rumah lagi tetapi diperluas hingga dapat berbasis dusun (kampung), desa atau wilayah lain yang lebih luas.

Lebih lanjut, disebutkan bahwa RPL adalah rumah penduduk yang mengusahakan pekarangan secara intensif untuk dimanfaatkan dengan berbagai sumberdaya lokal secara bijaksana yang menjamin kesinambungan penyediaan bahan pangan rumah tangga yang berkualitas dan beragam. Apabila RPL dikembangkan dalam skala luas, berbasis dusun (kampung), desa, atau wilayah lain yang memungkinkan, penerapan prinsip Rumah Pangan Lestari (RPL) disebut Kawasan Rumah Pangan Lestari (KRPL). Selain itu, KRPL juga mencakup upaya intensifikasi pemanfaatan pagar hidup, jalan desa, dan fasilitas umum lainnya (sekolah, rumah ibadah, dan lainnya), lahan terbuka hijau, serta mengembangkan pengolahan dan pemasaran hasil.

Kementerian Pertanian menginisiasi optimalisasi pemanfaatan pekarangan melalui konsep Rumah Pangan Lestari (RPL), karena ketersediaan pangan dalam jumlah yang cukup sepanjang waktu merupakan keniscayaan yang tidak terbantahkan. Hal ini menjadi prioritas pembangunan pertanian nasional dari waktu ke waktu. Ke depan, setiap rumah tangga menerapkan RPL sehingga diharapkan mampu mengoptimalisasi sumberdaya yang dimiliki, termasuk pekarangan, dalam menyediakan pangan bagi keluarga.

Prinsip dasar KRPL adalah: (i) pemanfaatan pekarangan yang ramah lingkungan dan dirancang untuk ketahanan dan kemandirian pangan, (ii) diversifikasi pangan berbasis sumber daya lokal, (iii) konservasi sumberdaya genetik pangan (tanaman, ternak, ikan), dan (iv) menjaga kelestariannya melalui kebun bibit desa menuju (v) peningkatan pendapatan dan kesejahteraan masyarakat.

Penelitian dari Kaswanto dan Nakagoshi (2012) berjudul Revitalizing Pekarangan Home Gardens, a Small Agroforestry Landscape for a Low Carbon Society di Jawa Barat, menunjukkan bahwa pengembangan lanskap agroforestri kecil berupa pekarangan dapat mengatasi masalah lingkungan di daerah pedesaan. Praktek manajemen lanskap pekarangan dapat membantu menekan masalah ekonomi, sosial, dan pembangunan ekologi di masyarakat marginal pedesaan. Oleh karena itu dengan revitalisasi sistem agroforestri kecil berupa pekarangan, masyarakat marjinal memiliki kemungkinan untuk maju secara ekonomi, sosial, dan ekologis. Jasa lingkungan dari pekarangan dapat berupa (1) konservasi keanekaragaman hayati, (2) kandungan karbon tersimpan, (3) pendapatan tambahan, dan (4) nutrisi tambahan bagi penghuninya. Pekarangan memiliki keanekaragaman hayati yang tinggi dan karbon tersimpan yang tinggi hingga 20% dari lanskap hutan, sedangkan total pendapatan bisa meningkat hingga 12,9%. Bahkan disebutkan pula bahwa pekarangan dapat memberikan 2,0% dari asupan kalori harian.



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