Analisis Dampak Spasial

12 02 2018

Analisis Dampak Spasial 

Oleh: Regan Leonardus Kaswanto

 

Analisis Dampak Spasial

Analisis Dampak Spasial

Sejatinya kehidupan manusia memiliki mobilitas yang amat tinggi. Karakter manusia yang senantiasa bergerak dan berkembang pada akhirnya akan menyebabkan pergerakan dan perbedaan pergerakan antar wilayah secara spasial. Industri perkebunan pada hakekatnya juga akan mengalami perbedaan pergerakan yang ditimbulkan oleh karena perbedaan karakteristik unit-unit wilayah yang ada di dalamnya, terkait dengan permintaan dan penawaran (supply and demand) dan juga faktor lokasi. Pusat kawasan industri mempunyai faktor lokasi yang amat penting sehingga menjadi point central dari fungsi pelayanan dalam kehidupan manusia yang kebutuhan sehari-harinya sangat bergantung dari pergerakannya.

 

Pergerakan atau perkembangan industri sebagai fungsi pelayanan mempunyai hirarki yang melingkupi seluruh kegiatan kehidupan yang ada di dalamnya. Hubungan antara hirarki industri – komunitas – perkebunan – fasilitas publik dan fungsi lain di bawahnya akan memperlihatkan adanya interaksi keruangan (spatial interaction). Interaksi keruangan dapat berupa aksesibilitas dari pusat kawasan hingga pinggir kawasan dalam hal kemudahan mengakses sarana dan prasarana yang tersedia di dalam kawasan. Interaksi keruangan kerap pula terjadi dalam aspek ekonomi di mana komunitas yang hidup di dalamnya melakukan kegiatan pertanian, baik dalam bentuk barang maupun jasa, yang kemudian dikelola secara komersial untuk kehidupan sehari-hari. Bahkan interkasi keruangan juga bisa terjadi dalam aspek sosial di mana tenaga kerja dalam industri perkebunan umumnya berasal dari masyarakat desa ataupun luar desa yang berniat mencari penghidupan yang lebih baik pada kawasan tersebut.

 

Interaksi keruangan pada aspek biofisik-ekonomi-sosial di atas dapat memberikan dampak positif dan negatif dalam mendukung perkembangan wilayah. Hal ini dikarenakan wilayah tidak dapat berdiri sendiri, saling berinteraksi dan memberikan timbal balik yang positif atau bahkan dengan adanya interaksi keruangan antar kawasan, juga mengakibatkan adanya permasalahan dalam kawasan. Dampak positif dan negatif inilah yang perlu dikaji lebih mendalam bagi keberlanjutan industri perkebunan yang dimiliki. Bahkan dapat dikatakan bahwa dalam sepak terjangnya selama lima dekade lebih semenjak tahun 1967, sudah sewajarnya dilakukan analisis dampak spasial (ADS) untuk melihat sudah sejauh mana dampak yang telah terjadi. Jika diketahui ada dampak positif maka interaksi keruangan dipertahankan dan ditingkatkan untuk dikelola dengan lebih baik, namun jika diketahui ada dampak negatif maka interaksi keruangan perlu diintervensi agar bergerak ke arah yang positif.

 

Dengan demikian, tujuan kegiatan ADS di lanskap industri mencakup 1) menganalisis perubahan perubahan keruangan (spatial changing) dalam  lanskap industri pada selang 25 tahun (1967, 1992 dan 2017), 2) menganalisis dampak positif dan negatif pergerakan interaksi keruangan (spasial) yang terjadi selama 50 tahun terakhir, dan 3) menyusun rekomendasi perkembangan wilayah lanskap industri agar menjadi lebih berkelanjutan secara ekologi, sosial dan ekonomi.

 

Analisis Dampak Spasial (ADS) dari perkembangan industri perkebunan yang dikelola pada dasarnya dapat dianalisis dengan beberapa pendekatan yang mencakup sebagai berikut:

  1. Analisis Perubahan Lanskap,
  2. Analisis Jasa Lanskap (Landscape Services Analysis),
  3. Analisis Ecovillage (Biofisik – Ekonomi – Spiritual),
  4. Triple Bottom Line (TBL) Benefit Analysis,
  5. Analisis Von Thunnen.

 



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